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This assumption corroborate the report by Jonsson et al.25 that of coffee berry borer infestation on cocoa were reduced in shade plantation than on sun-exposed plantations. Bosu, Paul P. et al. The highest plant height, stem girth and number of branches of Milicia was obtained on plot mixed with Cedrela odorata with mean value of 72.80 cm, 0.94 mm and 1.79, respectively (Table 1). The authors are grateful to Education Trust Fund 2008/2009 ETF- AST and D for sponsoring this study and to the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria for granting the enabling environment towards this study. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. irradiance. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. International audienceThe present study focuses on the cracking of tropical species of the Gabonese forest such as Milicia excelsa (Iroko) and Pterocarpus soyauxii (Padouk). Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. of planting Milicia excelsa in various densities and species mixtures. Also, Bosu et al.13 found that planting M. excelsa or M. regia in a mixture with Terminalia superba was effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. The plant is not self-fertile. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The species is a large deciduous tree growing up to 50 metres (160 ft) high. Number of galls on the test plants was assessed by direct counting of the galls at 2 weeks intervals while size of gall was measured with the aid of thread which was later stretched on meter rule to determine the actual length. ", Braissant, Olivier, Guillaume Cailleau, Michel Aragno, and Eric P. Verrecchia. For two dipterocarp species (Shoreafallaz and S. parvifolia), growth and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and thus render the investment unprofitable. agroforestry systems as tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia Trees planted 50 years ago in Uganda are now ready to harvest. It is resistant to termites and is used for construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. excelsa demonstrated a dose-dependent chemo-suppression in early and residual infections. Male trees start flowering after c. 10 years while females flower for the first time after 15 years.1 It … Data were collected on Milicia height, stem girth and number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population density at 2 weeks interval until the end of the experiment following the same procedure applied on the previous experiment. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. Of all the factors listed, slow growth rate is the main factor militating against propagation of Milicia in the study area; Oyo (58%), Osun (42%), Ogun (36%) Ondo (46%) and Ekiti (22%), followed by lack of seeds for propagation Oyo (34%), Osun (26%), Ogun (16%), Ondo (8%) and Ekiti (30%) (Table 5). Bosu, J.R. Cobbinah, J.D. Similarly, Pinus silvestris and Quercus humilis were found favored by the presence of a dense under storey, particularly when shrubs were higher than seedlings30,31. A mark was made on the plant at 5 cm from the ground level and all the measurements were taken at that marked portion until the end of the experiment. Control of Phytolyma pests through the use of chemical pesticide has been found ineffective due to its hidden nature. Figure 2a and b: Mean (with S.E. This, over time, has resulted in the tree that we see today commonly known as Iroko. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. M. excelsa is widely distributed across tropical African forests in West, Similarly, Plath et al.21 reported that higher herbivore damage to Tabebui rosea was found in mixed tree diversity than in mono plantation/stands. dispersal in a low-density wind-pollinated tropical tree, Molecular Ecology, 6-10, Taylor, Daniel; Kankam, Bright; Wagner, Michael, 1. IJFR International Journal of Forestry Research 1687-9376 1687-9368 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 210179 10.1155/2009/210179 210179 Research Article Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Threatened African Tree Species, Milicia excelsa, Using Nuclear Microsatellites DNA Markers Ouinsavi Christine 1, 2 … Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia are both traded as iroko and the share of Milicia excelsa in that commerce is unknown. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Relative growth rate of Milicia was highest at 42% of full irradiance (Agyeman 1994). Many indigenous species are also very difficult to grow in a plantation situation (e.g. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. Find here details of companies selling Teak Plants, for your purchase requirements. Jard. "Phenological Patterns in a Natural Population of a Tropical Timber Tree Species, Milicia Excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of Isolation by Time and Its Interaction with Feeding Strategies of Dispersers. [9] The people that conducted this study found that it would be a good method to use to specifically fight against the slow decline of the Iroko species. The percentage infestation of M. excelsa mixed with C. odorata. Bats, rodents, and birds). This study will help divulge the impact of companion plants on P. lata infestation. 2012 Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Milicia excelsa is a deciduous Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 35 m (114ft) at a medium rate. and neem were 12.94 and 22.01%, respectively (Fig. In the south-western Central African Republic (annual rainfall 1500 mm; dry period 2 months) the average annual increment in diameter of Milicia excelsa trees is 0.57 cm; it decreases with age from 0.93 cm for trees with a diameter of less than 10 cm to 0.45 cm for trees with 110–120 cm diameter. … R. Wagner 1 Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research KNUST … Distribution and habitat. C.C.Berg. A study in Ghana found that this tree relies heavily on the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) for seed dispersal, over 98% of the seed falling to the ground having passed through its gut. Suitable pH: acid, neutral … The results were recorded as 52.23% of M. excelsa seedling survival, followed by plot mixed with P. africanum (28.02%) while 24% sole plantation was recorded. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. R. Cobbinah and 2M. The timber is very strong, quite hard and long-lasting and the most important timber in international trade2. [10], J.-P. Bizoux, K. Dai’nou, The control experiment had the least number of galls, sizes of galls and population density of P. lata. All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 5.86 to 7.69. This implies that companion plants encourages development of some insect pests infestation rather than reduction. Milicia excelsa occurred sparsely in agroforestry systems in all regions, with density ranging from 1 to 4 stems ha⁻¹; stand basal area varying from 33.10⁻⁴ to 129.10⁻⁴ m² ha⁻¹, and negligible seedling regeneration. According to IUCN7, Milicia species is categorized as one of the endangered valuable timber species. Distribution of Milicia excelsa 453 Tuomela et al. The problem of slow growth of Milicia identified by the respondents in the study area as one of the factors militating against propagation of Milicia in this study, contradicted the earlier report by Birnie (1997) that Milicia excelsa is a fast growing species and coppices readily. Materials and Methods: Six months old M. excelsa seedlings were planted in mixed stands with companion plants (Cedrela odorata, Azadirachta indica and Pierreodendron africanum) seedlings in a separate sub plots in five replicates. It can tolerate an annual rainfall of less than 70 centimetres (28 in) or six months of drought as long as there is a stream or a ground water source nearby.[2]. [3] A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). 2012 Sep;99(9):1453-63. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200147. The effects of vitamins (half-strength Murashige and Skoog) and growth regulators (benzyladenine (BA) and NAA at 4.4+0.54 or 2.2+0.27 µsmallcap˜M) on axillary bud elongation (ABE) and shoot growth … It is hypothesized that the ancestor slowly developed a different flowering time from its ancestor, which led to differences in selection pressure during the time of reproduction. 1. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. Similarly, the plots mixed with C. odorata and neem had the highest percentage survival 24 months after transplanting. 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